Saturday, February 8, 2020

Youth on the Move. An Entrance Review Program Essay

Youth on the Move. An Entrance Review Program - Essay Example They tend to think of their families, of their jobs (for those who are working on a part time basis) and other financial matters. With this reason, a number of non-government organizations have been trying to look for possible solutions on how to assist these aspiring high school or college students. "Youth Sessions: An Entrance Review Program" can play a very important role in the achievement of these goal. This specific program deals more on the incoming high school and college students. This specific program aims to offer series of review sessions with the incoming high school and college students. More specifically, this program is aimed at: These students are those who, because of financial difficulties, were forced to stop from schooling. Now that they are about to continue their education, they really need this review session so that they may be updated with various school lessons. This program will also serve as a review for the lessons that they might have forgotten.. 2. Assisting the students who have just graduated from primary school or from high school. These students are those who have just graduated from primary and/or secondary school and are aspiring to go to a reputable university but will need to pass the entrance exam first. Methods and Strategies The role of this program is to provide a series of review sessions that will tackle the four major subjects in school - Mathematics, Science, English or Language and General Knowledge. A total of eight (16) teachers who can work on a part time basis will be the most important tool in this program. Two teachers will be teaching one subject matter everyday (one every half of the day). So, eight teachers will be teaching in the mornings and eight teachers in the afternoon. Each subject's session will last for one hour a day and will be done every Saturdays and Sundays and will run for two months. The days are chosen purposely so as not to affect the regular teaching schedules of the teachers. This also to accommodate the aspiring student-participants who are working on weekdays. So in a year's time, there will be 6 entrance review sessions. The teachers (because this is an NGO project) will be informed before hand that they will be doing this, not because of the salary, but because they are willing to help the youths. Nevertheless, these teachers will still be given transportation, food and other utility allowance. Meanwhile, the teaching materials - markers, white boards, pens etc. - will also be provided. These are the most basic teaching materials that will be shouldered by the program. Since the agency has already a room and LCD projectors that can accommodate a good number of students, the venue and the screens will not be a problem anymore. This program will also be providing lecture kit/manuals for each of the students which has a target number of 20 students per teacher per session. So, there will be 80 students for every 2-months review session. And a total number of 360 students will be reviewed in a year. The qualified students who can avail of this program will be base upon the economic status of the family. The facilitators will be verifying (from the records that the students will be presenting) if their family is really below the

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Holocaust Awareness...Contemporary Lessons Essay Example for Free

Holocaust AwarenessContemporary Lessons Essay Few events in recent history have had as dramatic an impact on history as the mass murder of Jews in concentration camps during World War II, the Holocaust. The Holocaust appears to be a well documented event (Hilberg, 1992), yet today there are those who feel it is just a myth. When he discovered the concentration camps, General and future President Dwight David Eisenhower knew that a future day would come when people would claim that the Holocaust never happened, so he took great pains to document and record the events on film so that the world would never forget. Even so, his efforts did not eliminate what he knew would happen. In spite of evidence to the contrary, today, there are many who claim that the Holocaust did not occur and that there is no evidence that it did. Yet the evidence suggests that is did happen and similar events such as the murder of more than 2 million people by the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia plus mass murders ethnic intolerance in Iraq, the Sudan, Rwanda and Yugoslavia continue to take place even now. During the early hours of September 1, 1939, Adolph Hitler invaded Poland bringing about the Second World War. Historically, this war began because of Hitler’s contempt regarding the way Germans were treated at the end of the First World War and other related issues. At the time World War II began, there was a world wide depression that helped bring Hitler rose to power in Germany and President Franklin Delano Roosevelt to power in the U. S. It is generally viewed that Hitler used the issue of Jewish economic domination in Germany both to push for war and as an excuse for the economic woes of Germany. (Bartov, 2000; Friedman, 1993). Ultimately, Hitler blamed the Jews for Germany’s economic problems and to begin exterminating them in concentration camps—mass genocide. (Gigliotti and Lang, 2005) on a scale that surpassed anything that had ever happened up to that time within so short a time span. Does engraining memories of past atrocities into the public psyche eliminate future atrocities? Political campaigns demonstrate that by slinging mud candidates provide name recognition for their opponent(s). In a similar vain, perhaps remembering the events of the Holocaust and similar events throughout history (and unfortunately, still occurring around the world today) will only drive home the fact that those events exist and are continuing. Do we really want to do that? We could be reinforcing the Holocaust in the minds of individuals who might not otherwise be aware that any such thing has ever happened or ever will. We have every reason to believe that Hitler knew of the mass extermination of the millions of Jews but ironically, there is no documented evidence in writing to confirm this idea. (Irving, 1977) Most German citizens during WWII also claimed ignorance of the Jewish extermination in progress at the time. â€Å"How could such a widespread extermination and mass murder have gone unnoticed† and â€Å"Where are the documents to show that Hitler was aware of it? † Today, nearly seventy years after the beginning of WWII and Jewish extermination, the question is still asked, â€Å"Did Hitler even know about the Jewish extermination process underway? † The fact that anyone even asks this question is, perhaps, the greatest evidence that we need to teach that it is a real part of human history. While it seems irrational to assume that Hitler actually had no knowledge of what was going on, it appears to be equally true that few if any documents exist to demonstrate his knowledge of what was going on (Irving, 1977) even though there certainly appears to be a great deal of documentation about the war and the Holocaust (Wolfe, 1990). We can only wonder why these contradictory situations exist. In his 1977 book Hitlers War, one noted British historian, David Irving, outlines why he feels that stories of the mass killings of European Jews in Death Camps are merely British and American inventions, war-time propaganda perpetrated by the Allies. Irving presents several lines of argument to support his claims. For example, he points out that there is no archival evidence anywhere for the gassings, no wartime German documents that refer to the gassings of human beings and there is no clear evidence as to who gave the orders to gas people. He also claims that forensic tests of the laboratories, crematoria, gas chambers and Auschwitz fail to find any trace or significant residue of a cyanide compound. Irving dismisses eye witness accounts on the grounds that there are equal numbers of eye witness accounts of the gas chambers in Dachau even though there werent any gas chambers in Dachau and he believes that photographs documenting the Holocaust have been misrepresented. Why is it so vital that we remember the Holocaust? Arguments can be made both for and against that stance, but certainly, the history of the Holocaust should not be slighted or overlooked. The repeated efforts to try to wipe the memory of the Holocaust out of the human psyche as if it never occurred may be one of the strongest points in favor or remembering it. The intended purpose of engraining events from the Holocaust into the mind of todays generation is to allow them to learn the lessons of horror from the past and avoid them—so that we won’t repeat them. Whether this is true or not, we more or less taking comfort in the belief, right or wrong, that if people see the horrors of those events, they will make every effort to avoid them, prevent them and take precautions against repeating them whenever they see the signs in the future. Perhaps the way to combat future human atrocities is to focus on the opposite rather than to memorialize them. What lessons can we learn from the Holocaust? First, the Holocaust demonstrates how large groups and numbers of people, even on the scale of nations, can subtly be influenced into â€Å"groupthink† (i. e. , where groups of people think and behave alike because others are thinking and behaving the same way) (Janis, 1972) and manipulated by a very few influential individuals. Second, the Holocaust demonstrates that all too often, man treats his fellow man inhumanely. â€Å"How do we avoid this in the future? † I fear that there is no global answer. Whenever such a situation begins in the future, only then can we address the issue. Another lesson we can learn is that anyone can be the victim, so everyone should recognize and acknowledge it whenever it happens. When we recognize it, we must act together to stop it, and that, unfortunately, is much easier said then done. Perhaps there is no satisfactory solution to preventing future atrocities like the Holocaust. In he end, perhaps all be can do is to try to recognize such events when we see them approaching and then to do everything we can to prevent them. References Bartov, Omar. The Holocaust. Origin, Implementation, Aftermath. New York, NY: Routledge, 2000. Friedman, Saul S. Holocaust Literature. A Handbook of Critical, Historical and Literary Writing. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993.Gigliotti, Simone and Berel Lang. The Holocaust. A Reader. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2005. Hilberg, Raul. Perpetrators Victims Bystanders. The Jewish Catastrophe 1933-1945. New York, NY: Aaron Asher Books, 1992. Irving, David. Hitlers War. New York, NY: Viking Press, 1977. Janis, Irving L. Victims of Groupthink. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1972. Levi, Neil and Michael Rothberg. The Holocaust. Theoretical Readings. New Brunswick. NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2003. Wolfe, Robert. Holocaust. The Documentary Evidence. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1990.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Crime And Punishment Essay -- essays research papers

Sonya’s affect on Raskolnikov Sonya, throughout the story had a great affect on Raskolnikov’s changes. In the novel, Crime and Punishment by Fyoder Dostoevsky, this can be seen from all the things Sonya had done for Raskolnikov and what affect the cold person turned loving. Sonya is the daughter of Rodia’s friend that was forced into prostitution to provide for the family, but all is done willingly out of love. In Sonya, one can see a great sinner as Raskalnikov at peace with her and with God. Sonya’s knowledge that God alone gives one worth allows Sonya to love others unconditionally, including Raskalnikov. Sonya also helps Raskolnikov to get rid of suffering from guilt. Sonya, being extremely religious, believes that everyone deserves a second chance. Sonya then shows Raskolnikov how to be forgiven in God’s eyes. Then convinces Rodia to confess to everyone the murders of the old money lender so that in God’s eyes will be forgiven. Against Sonya’s meekness and love, Raskalnikov begins to break. At first, Rodia is argumentative, mocking Sonya’s childlike faith. "‘She’s a holy fool!" Raskalnikov thinks to, but yet Rodia is still drawn to Sonya’s strength. At last, Raskalnikov begins to realize that he is not alone, and it is because of this realization that the great sinner began to confess to Sonya. It can be said that, in this confession, Raskalnikov’s strength returns. However, Raskalnikov’s confession to Sonya is not enough, and S...

Monday, January 13, 2020

Dr. Faustus as a Tragically Flawed Character Essay

It seems impossible to define Dr. Faustus, from Christopher Marlowe’s play â€Å"Doctor Faustus,† as being anything other than tragically flawed. Faustus is not evil, foolish, or rebellious. Faustus’s flawed nature rests solely on his own prideful, overly-ambitious ways. Even so, the question still remains as to whether or not such an all-encompassing flaw should result in the damnation of one’s soul. Faustus is obviously confused as to the nature of religion, but attempting to justify Faustus’s punishment through any sphere other than religion would be improper considering the implications of the play. While Faustus’s punishment is obviously upheld by the Christian religion, his behavior, in a moralistic fashion, suggests that his soul is not deserving of such damnation. During the initial Prologue, the Chorus, reminiscent of earlier Greek tragedies, prepares the reader for the tragic story of Dr. Faustus, a man whose â€Å"swollen and cunning† ways lead to his inevitable downfall (Prologue. 20) . Faustus, who eventually will â€Å"mount above his reach†, is compare to Icarus from Greek mythology who flies too close to the sun and drowns (Prologue. 21). The Chorus tells us that this is most assuredly not a story about â€Å"pomp of proud audacious deed,† but of a man whose ineptitude leads to his eventual fall from grace (Prologue. 4-5). The Prologue serves to begin the story by focusing on Faustus, comparing him to any other tragic hero of Greek literature, and letting the reader know that even though they may sympathize with Faustus position, he is essentially damn for the beginning of the story. Because of the inclusion of a Chorus it the play, Marlowe is reiterating the fact that Faustus should still be considered a tragic hero. Like Achilles, Faustus has a flaw that will lead to his demise, but the damnation of Faustus would be the equivalent of damning great Greek heroes such as Achilles or Hercules. As Faustus’s character is revealed through his initial speeches in the first chapters, his flaws of pride and ambition become apparent. Faustus begins by contemplating the merits of various forms of science. He deems the study of rhetoric, medicine, and religion to all be unworthy subjects for a variety of selfish reason. Even when he decides to pursue a study of magic, he does so in hopes that magic make him â€Å"a mighty god† (1.62). This initial decision is instrumental in much of Faustus’s character development throughout the play. Faustus considers two important alternatives, the study of medicine to help people or the study of religion to learn of God. Faustus decides that neither of these goals is personally profitable for him at that time. His shortsightedness when deciding which subject to study is in direct correlation with his other various displays of pride and selfishness. Shortly after beginning his studies of dark magic, Faustus summons Mephistopheles, one of the demons at the service of Lucifer. Here and many other times throughout the play, Faustus displays signs of guilt and remorse, and even considers repenting of his misdeeds. Because of these various vacillations on the part of Faustus, many times throughout the play two angels, one good and one evil, appear to present arguments as to why Faustus should or should not repent. Even the early arguments that convince Faustus to enter into his pact with the devil are aimed at his ambitious pride, telling him he may one day be king of all Germany. Later in the play, he is convinced to remain in league with the devil because of all the money and riches he could make through his powers. Faustus proves that he is unable to consider the long term ramifications to his decision. Even when his own body revolts against the pact, congealing his blood to prevent his signature, Faustus seems unaware of the negative consequences of his actions. His lack of foresight has confined his logic to considering only the short term gains associated with this pact. In another particular instance, Faustus again shows uncertainty in his convictions toward the devil. This time, the simple arguments presented by his angelic representations are not sufficient to easy Faustus’s mind. In order to relieve his misgivings, the devil and his demons parade images of the Seven Deadly Sins before him. These sins, all representatives of tragic flaws themselves, encourage Faustus, and he delights in this parade. His enjoyment of the sinful display points to a need within Faustus to recognize tragic flaws or sin within others. He is reassured by this display because he sees a common connection with these other various sins, and is able to relate to them. Throughout the play, he continues to build himself up by seeking dramatic flaws in other characters. During a previous discourse with Mephistopheles, Mephistopheles tells Faustus that he is constantly â€Å"tormented with ten thousand hells in being deprived of everlasting bliss,† but Faustus only seems to delight in Mephistopheles admission of weakness (3. 77-80). Instead of recognizing Mephistopheles statement as a warning toward the horrors of Hell, Faustus chastises Mephistopheles for his lack of â€Å"manly fortitude† (3. 85). Faustus’s conversation with Mephistopheles reveals his own blinded nature. Even when presented with the raw, uncensored truth of Hell, Faustus is unable to comprehend the vital information that is being given to him. Faustus is too prideful, and here, as in the parade of sins, he reaffirms his own position by delighting in the infirmities of others. As Faustus wanders, displaying the powers that he has obtained from the devil, his inevitable demise becomes apparent. Initially, Faustus has high hopes of obtaining his lofty goals. He rides through the heavens in chariots drawn by dragons and is even able to confront the pope, but, as his time on earth begins to wane, his performances become less impressive. He has transformed from a hero with a tragic flaw into a comic display of simplicity and waste. Everything about him is rather unimpressive. He is reduced to playing pranks on horse-coursers and performing tricks for royalty. In Vanholt, he appears to be just another rouge or clown. As a response to his own demise, Faustus comments to himself, â€Å"What are thou, Faustus, but a man condemned to die? † (10. 24). While his flaws become more and more apparent throughout the play, the idea that Faustus deserves harsh punishment becomes more ambiguous as the play continues. Many of his tragic qualities seem to be the direct result of his inability to comprehend the true nature of God, as presented through the Christian faith. In his initial consideration of religion, Faustus is unable to focus on forgiveness or salvation, but only sees that all men are condemned to death for their sins. He is constantly reminded by his angel companions that God’s forgiveness is available to him if he only repents, but Faustus finds himself unable to do so. He confuses Mephistopheles statement that Hell is everywhere to mean that â€Å"hell is a fable† and simple a continuation of an earthly existence. Because of his apparent naivety toward religion, Faustus character is able to effectively question the legitimacy of his punishment, even though he has been warned of it consistently throughout the play. It is because of this ambiguity that Faustus is able to remain a sympathetic character. It is apparent from the beginning of the play that Faustus is a tragically flawed character, but, by its end, the reader must decide what becomes of a tragic character whose flaw prevents him from overcoming the need for grace and repentance in his life. Faustus is a character overcome by the expectations of grandness in his life and a pride that he will someday meet these expectations. Because Marlowe places Faustus within the context of a struggle between the acceptance and denial of traditional Christian values, the reader is forced to judge Faustus within the circle of Christian ideology. Faustus denies grace and, through this particular ideology, deserves the punishment of being condemned to Hell, but, in a strictly moralistic fashion, in may seem to many that Faustus has previously found his Hell on earth and is undeserving of an eternal damnation.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Defining Overweight And Obesity Bmi Interpretation

†¢ Defining overweight and obesity – BMI interpretation is review. The Body Mass Index (BMI) formula is used to estimate the proportion of fat a person has based on their HEIGHT and WEIGHT. Adults with a BMI between 18.5 and 24.9 are considered to be at a normal or healthy weight, adults with a BMI between 25 and 29.9 are considered to be overweight, and adults with a BMI of 30 or higher are considered obese. †¢ What challenges do people face in trying to lose weight, even when they know the health risks? Not easy for them to take weight off, even though they know the health risks they are unable to change their eating behaviors, especially during family and friend gatherings. One of the ladies in the video said she had tried everything (diets) and had been unable to see the chances she was hoping for. She would get tired of the diet, feeling that it was not going to work for her, and would fall off and eat a lot of the things she was not â€Å"supposed to have†. Further on, the video also showed what was left of the Bogalusa playground. It was not a playground were children would want to go play in and get their physical activity done. Poverty is also a challenge because you may have individuals who would like to chance their eating habits but depend on pantries and cannot afford to get healthier foods. †¢ Describe the long-term study that began with children in the early 1970s – where is it taking place, what are they studying, what are they finding? What are the implicationsShow MoreRelatedFactors Affecting Food Intake in Australia Essay3082 Words   |  13 Pagespractice, which highly differed from genuine subjects like science (Morawski, 2008). Food or taste was regarded not important. However, as humanity is changing, humans are reshaping the way they define themselves. Consequently, today, people are defining their identity more from the food they consume other than past social responsibilities as they used to do generations ago (Morawski, 2008). For centuries now, food refinement is continuing to occur, which has inspired innovative researchers to engageRead MoreCognitive Resilience in Adulthood9822 Words   |  40 Pagesthat both developmental continuity (e.g., Evans amp; Schamberg, 2009) and plasticity (e.g., Hertzog, Kramer, Wilson, amp; Lindenberger, 2008) are powerful forces of development, with threats and protective factors that buffer against those threats defining a lifelong resilience process. Senescence, the biological process of aging, certainly circumscribes limits on cognitive components requiring speeded information processing and executive control in later life, and increases vulnerability to pathologicalRead MoreMedical Test with Answers Essay example16933 Words   |  68 Pagesnutrition: more than body requirements? A. Morbidly obese. B. Markedly obese. C. Inadequate lifestyle changes in diet and exercise. Correct D. Increased morbidity and mortality risks. Obesity is a body weight that is 20% above desirable weight for a persons age, sex, height, body build, and calculated body mass index (BMI). (C) best identifies factors that contribute to the formulation of the nursing diagnosis. (A and B) are medical classifications for a clients weight. Although the client is at anRead MoreComprehensive 1 Essay18452 Words   |  74 Pagesnutrition: more than body requirements? A.   Morbidly obese. B.   Markedly obese. C.   Inadequate lifestyle changes in diet and exercise.  Correct D.   Increased morbidity and mortality risks. Obesity is a body weight that is 20% above desirable weight for a persons age, sex, height, body build, and calculated body mass index (BMI). (C) best identifies factors that contribute to the formulation of the nursing diagnosis. (A and B) are medical classifications for a clients weight. Although the client is at anRead MoreFundamentals of Hrm263904 Words   |  1056 Pagesfunction of two factors: ability and willingness to do the job.16 Thus, from a performance perspective, employees need the appropriate skills and abilities to adequately do the job. This should be ensured in the first two phases of HRM by correctly defining the requirements of the job, matching applicants to those requirements, and training the new employee in how to do the job.17 But another concern is the job design itself. If jobs are poorly designed, inadequately laid out, improperly described,Read MoreMedicare Policy Analysis447966 Words   |  1792 Pagesmaterials, or other programs 8 which provide technical assistance and problem solv- 9 ing skills. Such component may include programs re- 10 change component which encourages lating to— 11 (A) tobacco use; 12 (B) obesity; 13 (C) stress management; 14 (D) physical fitness; 15 (E) nutrition; 16 (F) substance abuse; 17 (G) depression; and 18 (H) mental health promotion. 19 (4) SUPPORTIVE ENVIRONMENT COMPONENT.— 20 A

Saturday, December 28, 2019

How Is Britains Economy Affected By Foreign Investment Finance Essay - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1703 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Narrative essay Did you like this example? Foreign Direct Investment is considered by many to be an important driver of growth within countries (OECD, 2002). This is thought to be due to advantages in exploiting competitive pressures in markets, stimulating technology transfers and increasing innovative activity. Such activity is sought to be encouraged and therefore there is widespread agreement that policy should aim at minimizing or eliminating obstruction to FDI. This study will examine the benefits that FDI has had on the Britains economy. It shall attempt to assess how policy has helped to attract FDI and assess the economic future of the UK. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "How Is Britains Economy Affected By Foreign Investment Finance Essay" essay for you Create order Research Objectives The general objective of the research is to identify the impact of foreign direct investment on the British economy. The specific objectives of the paper shall be: To evaluate the economic growth trend of the UK and the policies implemented on foreign direct investment. To evaluate the economic impact of foreign direct investment within the UK. To assess the economic future of the UK. Changes from Initial Research Proposal One of the original ideas of the report was to evaluate the effect that FDI has had on the UK in terms of changes to technology, management style, employment etc. However after the consideration of relevant material it appears that this area of FDI research is significantly large and will draw the report away from the economic impacts of FDI, therefore to ensure that the report is coherent and remains relevant to the title given I shall only briefly consider such impacts within the report and remain focused on the core economic effects that FDI brings to the UK. Draft Literature Review In the case of whether FDI benefits or detracts from a countrys economy, a vast body of literature is available. Studies such as Mac Dougall (1960), Kojima (1973), Hymer (1976), Azmat (1999), Andrea Marino (2000), Kishor (2000), Balasundram (2000), Chakrabarti, (1997, 2001) and Gordon (2001) have identified variables that affect the flow of FDI into countries as market size, quality of infrastructure, labour cost, economic openness, return on capital and political stability. Sung-Hoon Lim et al (1998), describe the spill over benefits that FDI may bring to a country, including inflows of foreign capital, increased employment, increased gross national product and transference of multinational corporations advanced skill and technology. These positive benefits may be the main goal of governments implementing policy to attract FDI. Studies looking at the determinants of FDI found that many factors can affect the attractiveness of a country for investors. Root and Ahmed (1979) found that political stability was a significant factor, changes in government leadership was a contributing element to this. In developed countries, Nigh (1985), explained that inter country political events effect investment attractiveness. Lucas (1993) shows how President Aquinos accession in the Philippines positively relates to inward FDI flows. Equally the perceived negativity of Sukarnos rule in Indonesia led to a negative effect in FDI. Kadi (1999) also discusses that the low percentage of FDI in the Middle East is due to factors including the political instability in that region, ascertained from a cross-section of data involving FDI and economic freedom. Helliener (1988) and UNCTAD-DTCI (1996) suggested that investment incentives created by governments have a limited influence in FDI decisions. A study by Scaperlanda and Mauer (1969) hypothesised that FDI inflow would respond positively once a recipient country had reached a market size threshold that allows economies of scale to be achieved at the utilisation on resources. Post studies have tested this theory with mixed results. Lipsey (1999) found that higher per capita income, which acts as a factor in determining market size, the greater the inflow of FDI; however Jaspersen et al (2000) found this to show a negative impact on FDI inflow. It is further possible to compare and contrast these determinants with mixed results, with the various studies complementing and contradicting each other in relation to the determinants. Nebende et al (2000) examined the cost related factors as a determinant of FDI and proposed that they play a dominant role. In examination of wage costs and human capital, Nebende explains that skilled labour requiring underpriced pay is a key factor in FDI attractiveness. However Kathryn et al (1995) e xplains that there is no significant statistical relationship between exchange rates and FDI, relative to domestic investment and overall level of investment. According to research findings by Stephen et al (1997), the gross domestic product, imports, exports, infrastructure, political risk, are significant influences on the decisions of multinational businesses to invest abroad. Dunning (1977, 1979, 1988 and 1993) presented the ownership, location, and internalisation theory. In analysing the fundamentals for FDI to occur, Dunning asserted that any business should have a firm specific advantage, namely ownership, a good established location in order to mobilise the specific firm know-how (location), and an incentive to internalise external transactions (internalisation). Narula et al (1998) described how the competitiveness of multinationals is becoming increasingly about how mobile and knowledge intensive they are. Narula went on to explain that these multinationals focus extra attention to the availability and quality of assets created in varying locations. There are four notable studies that have previously been completed in the specific area of FDI in the UK, HMSO (1983), Stopford and Dunning (1983), Stopford and Turner (1985) and Young, Hood and Hamil (1988). The first of these focuses primarily on investment by multinationals; the document focuses on foreign investment in areas deemed assisted areas where the government actively encouraged foreign investment. For this reason the document is not a source for total foreign investment in the UK but only a specific area. Stopford and Dunnings work is part of a study of multinationals and allows a comparison for inward investment in specific countries and the industry areas that this investment has been focused in. Stopford and Turner is primarily an analysis on the effects of multinationals on the UK economy however it provides some data on foreign investment into the UK. Finally Young, Hood and Hamil provide various data in the form of snapshots. The reviewed literature is largely confined to several factors which determine the attraction of FDI to a host country. These factors are broadly the cost related factors, investment environment, macro economic factors, political stability/risk factors, and development strategy factor of the host country. Methodology In regards to research for my topic I shall utilise secondary research, using previous studies to compare and contrast my own research with. Saunders (2003) describes how data collected should be carefully analysed to ensure that the data is appropriate for the way in which it is being used. Ascertaining all the appropriate data for the chosen topic area would be a task too great for an individual in the timescale given. Therefore the topic shall utilise secondary research data collected from appropriate and relevant sources, to ensure a larger and higher quality dataset. The study shall make use of the data provided through the UK National Statistics Authority on FDI into the UK and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). As UK National Statistics is a UK Authority the data used from this source should reflect a true and accurate representation of the FDI market; however the latest report created in 2010 only covers the period up to and including 2008. For this reason data from OECD shall be utilised when analysing the periods up to and including quarter 3 of 2010, where required. As an independent organisation the OECD works with countries globally to promote policies that will improve the economic and social well-being of people around the world (OECD, 2011). This independent organisation has no bias towards individual countries and since data provided has been collected and published over a period of years in the same context, the data available for comparing and contrasting should be reliably and valid. These reports ar e prepared usingÂÂ  the most recent annual FDI statistics released by OECD countries and statistics for international mergers and acquisitions (MA) collected by Dealogic, which operates under a code of approved ethics. Previous studies found on FDI into the UK have thus far not covered the period known as the credit crunch. While these reports shall be useful to make comparisons against when comparing past and future, I shall be continuing my search for current studies, allowing me to make direct comparisons in a modern context. All procedures for data collection and analysis shall consider theoretical assumptions and fulfill criteria such as validity and reliability. A code of ethics ensuring that data and other research used is gained from credible sources ensuring that data was attained in an appropriate manner for this study to utilize, and not gained by violating any codes by which the information was held under. Evaluation of Work Undertaken The aspect of the topic chosen has remained the same since the beginning; however after further research into the subject area changes have been made. The reasons for these changes have been to improve the project and make it a more coherent and higher quality study. Several areas of the topic proved to be larger than anticipated and therefore to include these areas in detail would prove too time consuming and push the document over the word limit. For these reason I have scaled down the project slightly in order to benefit it. I have found whilst researching that although there is much information on how FDI affects countries, there are few studies that address the issue in the same context as the one I have proposed. Whilst this proves to benefit my study in terms of being a new piece of research, it does cause issues when trying to compare studies, practically studies carried out in the UK, as there are few. Literature Review Methodology Analysis Draft 75% Completed. Research has been conducted identifying key issues within the reporting area. The main ideas have been written up and will shortly be ready to be reviewed. Clearly defined. Identified the main threats to validity and generalisation of the project and implementation of strategies to overcome issues. 60% complete. Data sets located and analysed. Write up of this chapter to be completed shortly. First chapters 75% complete, including: literature review and methodology. Ready for review shortly. Future Timeline to Complete Project Week (Academic Weeks Only) 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Literature Research ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   Process Data ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   Analyse Data ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   Hand in Progress Report ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   Complete Chapters ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   Draft Final Report ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   Submit Draft ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   Revise Draft ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   Print and Bind Final Report ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   Submit Final Report ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   ÂÂ   Â

Friday, December 20, 2019

Efficiency in Health Care Systems Essay - 2288 Words

Its without doubt that there are countless ways to define efficiency in the health care system. The different structures of the health care systems around the world give rise to discrepancies in the definitions present. Yet such definitions all share common elements. Hence a unanimous statement of what efficiency is should be adopted to allow the fair evaluation of health care systems internationally. Efficiency should be simply defined as the balanced relationship between the inputs to health care and the maximized outputs that are generated from such inputs. Efficiency can be split into three broad categories, operational efficiency, allocative efficiency and administrative efficiency (Elizabeth A. McGlynn, et al. 2008). With this†¦show more content†¦2009 p.18). An OECD study conducted in 2007 which compared unit costs found there was a potential for the reduction of costs. For countries such as Australia, France, Sweden and the US, such costs could be reduced by 5-48%. F or the same output, it was estimated that Australia had to the potential to reduce 42% of costs. In terms of duplication of services, Australia’s rate of duplicating services was at 12% in 2008 compared to that of other countries such as 18% in Germany, 20% in the US, 10%, 11% and 7% (Survey of Sicker Adults 2005, 2008) in Canada, New Zealand and the UK, respectively. This shows that Australia is considered to be an average performer in this respect but seeing that there are such margins, Australia and other countries such as the US can still increase their efficiency. With the prevalence of test results being unavailable, 2008 results show that Australia was again an average performer with 17% of tests or medical records not being available at the time of assessment of sick patients. Here, Australia was topped by the Netherlands, Germany and the UK whom had 11%, 12%, and 15% (Survey of Sicker Adults 2005, 2008) of cases respectively. Human error and related adverse events a re also of significance towards affecting efficiency with Australia being outperformed by the US by 9.3% of admissions. TheShow MoreRelatedDelivering Cost Effective Healthcare Services1283 Words   |  6 PagesIn recent years, governments are searching for ways to deliver the equity, efficiency, cost-effectiveness healthcare services to maintain and improve their health systems (WHO, 2004). The aim of equal access to health care for all population groups is the common target for many health care systems. The Australian health care system provides resources on the equal access of a mixed private and public funding system which covers the entire population. As Palmer Torgerson (1999) pointed out thatRead MoreThe Future Of Americas Health Care System1510 Words   |  7 Pagesfuture of America’s health care system looks bright with new innovations coming about. 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